好書推薦

島觀太平洋

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「陸地的盡頭,才是世界的開始。」台灣四面環海,東眺太平洋,然而多數人對海的想像不是停留在觀光層次,就是將其視為危險禁忌之所。本期《人籟》邀您以島民的身分與眼光,造訪南島民族的家鄉,一起航向遼闊的太平洋!

*本期專輯的完成,感謝行政院原住民族委員會的支持與贊助。

閱讀更多島觀太平洋專輯,請見《人籟》雜誌與《e人籟》網站:

http://www.erenlai.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=691&Itemid=337&lang=tw

Sung Tales from the Papua New Guinea Highlands: Studies in Form, Meaning, and Sociocultural Context

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Edited by Alan Rumsey & Don Niles

The genres of sung tales that are the subject of this volume are one of the most striking aspects of the cultural scene in the Papua New Guinea Highlands.

Composed and performed by specialist bards, they are a highly valued art form. From a comparative viewpoint they are remarkable both for their scale and complexity, and for the range of variation that is found among regional genres and individual styles. Though their existence has previously been noted by researchers working in the Highlands, and some recordings made of them, most of these genres have not been studied in detail until quite recently, mainly because of the challenging range of disciplinary expertise that is required—in anthropology, linguistics, and ethnomusicology.

This volume presents a set of interrelated studies by researchers in all of those fields, and by a Papua New Guinea Highlander who has assisted with the research based on his lifelong familiarity with one of the regional genres. The studies presented here (all of them previously unpublished and written especially for this volume) are of groundbreaking significance not only for specialists in Melanesia or the Pacific, but also for readers with a more general interest in comparative poetics, mythology, musicology, or verbal art.

Sadyaq Balae! The Many States of Formosan Indigeneity

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Author: Simon Scott
Publisher: Presses de l’Université Laval (Oct 1 2012)
Language: French
ISBN-10: 2763795935
ISBN-13: 978-2763795935

Like indigenous peoples all over the planet, the Austronesian peoples of Formosa (Taiwan) have lost their sovereignty because of colonial history. The Sadyaq peoples, with a population of 35,000, traditionally constituted a “society against the state.” Following the Sacred Law of Gaya, which prohibited all individual accumulation of power or wealth, they were democrats without equal. After 1895, they were submitted to the Japanese Empire, and were integrated into the Republic of China since 1945. The Sadyaq have henceforth been encapsulated in many new state institutions: tribal classifications, indigenous reserves, development projects, elections, and even a new legal regime for indigenous rights. But, the spirit of Gaya still continues to inspire resistance, as much against the state as against any form of compromise with the state.

賽德克巴萊! 國家之下的福爾摩莎原住民族

如同全球的原住民族,台灣的南島民族因為受到殖民統治而失去了主權。傳統的賽德克民族(目前人口約35000人)組成了一種 “反國家的社會” (society against the state)。賽德克人遵循”Gaya”──由祖先傳下來的神聖律法,其內容包含了禁止所有個人權力及財富的積累──使他們成為”上乘無比的民主政體”。1895 年之後,他們被迫臣服於大日本帝國;1945年後,他們被併入中華民國。其後,賽德克民族被封裝(been encapsulated)於許多國家的制度之內:族群分類法、原住民保留地、各種發展計畫、選舉,乃至於新的原住民族法律體制。不過,GAYA的精神仍然持續激勵著對於國家,以及任何向國家妥協之形式的反抗。

On the Edge of the Global: Modern Anxieties in a Pacific Island Nation (Contemporary Issues in Asia and Pacific)

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Author: Niko Besnier

Publisher: Stanford: Stanford University Press

Available From: Stanford University Press

Publication Date: 2011

ISBN: 978-0-8047-7406-2

On the Edge of the Global: Modern Anxieties in a Pacific Island Nation is the eighteenth title in the East-West Center book series, Contemporary Issues in Asia and the Pacific, published by Stanford University Press.

Niko Besnier’s illuminating ethnography explores the malaise present in the postcolonial Global South, focused on the island kingdom of Tonga. His work highlights the ways in which segments of this small-scale society hold on to different understandings of what modernity is, how it should be made relevant to local contexts, and how it should mesh with practices and symbols of tradition.

Adopting a wide-angled perspective that brings together political, economic, cultural, and social concerns, Besnier argues that life in twenty-first-century Tonga is rife with uncertainties at odds with the appearance of stability and order conveyed by traditionalism. In the political realm, these uncertainties adopt a vocabulary of neo-traditionalism, democracy, neo-liberal economics, and citizenship. In Tongans’ everyday lives, they take on a shape of a more mundane nature: how to make ends meet, how to pay lip service to tradition, and how to present a modern self without opening oneself to ridicule. Engaging with key issues in contemporary, Besnier’s work is ideal for introductory and upper-division courses in social and cultural anthropology.

Niko Besnier is Professor of Cultural Anthropology in the Department of Sociology & Anthropology at the University of Amsterdam. He has also taught at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Yale University, Victoria University of Wellington, and UCLA. He is the author of five books, most recently, Gossip and the Everyday Production of Politics (2009).

Details and ordering information at Stanford University Press

Contents

Figures, Tables, Charts, and Maps
Note on Tongan Orthography and Transcription Conventions
Preface
1.Straddling the Edge of the Global
2.Tonga’s Modernity
3.Consumption and Cosmopolitanism
4.When Gifts Become Commodities
5.Modern Bodies on the Runway
6.Coloring and Straightening
7.Shaping the Modern Body
8.Reconfiguring the Modern Christian
Conclusion: Sites of Modernity
Notes
References
Index

Review

“Besnier takes us to Tongan beauty parlors, pageants, pawn shops, outdoor markets, church services and gyms to show how local ‘modernities’ and ‘traditionalities’ are enacted within disparate sites. His book, remarkable in its nuanced, respectful depiction of the emotional lives and intellectual perspectives of diverse informants, is wonderful in argument and ethnography."

-Deborah Gewertz, Amherst College

“Ethnographically acute and open-eared, interpretively imaginative and principled, and always engaging, Besnier’s book takes Tonga from ‘the edge’ to the center of new ways of thinking about ‘the global.’ Besnier’s subtle attentiveness to the shape of both ordinary and extraordinary lives and events makes for a rich and theoretically provocative examination indeed."

–Don Brenneis, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz

LOOKING NORTH, LOOKING SOUTH: China, Taiwan, and the South Pacific.

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LOOKING NORTH, LOOKING SOUTH: China, Taiwan, and the South Pacific.

Series on Contemporary China, v. 26. Editor, Anne-Marie Brady.

Singapore; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2010. xvi, 298 pp. (Tables, figures,maps.) US$94.00, cloth. ISBN 978-981-4304-38-2.

By Yuan-chao Tung, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

China has been rising on the world stage as one of the major powers since the 1990s. This ascent, however, is also evident in Oceania, otherwise known as the Pacific Island region. Looking North, Looking South: China, Taiwan and the South Pacific, edited by Anne-Marie Brady, focuses on China as an emerging power in this part of the world and examines the changing sphere of influence of the United States, Australia and New Zealand, as China moves in.

In Oceania, Six Pacific Island countries recognize Taiwan diplomatically, contributing significantly to broadening Taiwan’s limited role in international affairs. Looking North, Looking South argues that China’s cross-Strait relations with Taiwan, as well as its global foreign policy, contribute to its increasing involvement in the Oceanic region as an aid donor, investor and trade partner. Ten providing authors differ in the prospective future role that China will play as its power grows. Will China remain self-restrained or maintain to keep its power balance with other players in the region?

Looking North, Looking South is organized into three parts: I. China and Taiwan’s South Pacific Rivalry; II. The Impact on Other Key Pacific Players; and III. Chinese Foreign Policy in the Pacific: Two Perspectives. These papers cover the motivations of Chinese involvement in Oceania (the Pacific Island region), the China-Taiwan rivalry, and balance of power among China, the United States, Australia and New Zealand. They largely touch on aid programs that are considered short-term, unpredictable and secretive, and the presence of growing Overseas Chinese communities. Various authors analyze a number of anti-Chinese incidences, highlighting the tension brought on by improper working conditions in Chinese investment projects, competition from the growing amount of Chinese businesses, and the siding of the Asian donors in local politics. While Hanson sees China as a stumbling donor without a grand plan in the region, as reflected by its aid programs, Saunders (subsuming the Pacific Islands under Asia), argues that China’s Asia strategy carefully reassures other Asian countries of its benign intentions. Meanwhile, Yang agrees that China has a grand foreign policy, but that the South Pacific plays a limited role compared to that of Africa and Latin America.

While most of the contributors in Looking North, Looking South come from the expertise of political science and international relations, Professor Ron Crocombe, author of the comprehensive 2007 volume, Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West (USP Press), is the only one who focuses on cultural commensurabilities, or “software” as he calls it. Different ideas about governance account for the tense relationship between the Oceanic states and their donor countries, especially Australia and New Zealand. China is blamed for not demanding the same degree of aid accountability as applied by Australia and New Zealand. In Oceanic societies, political alliances are primarily based on long-term relationships of reciprocal exchanges. An act of gift-giving, for example, obliges a return gift which subsequently initiates another cycle of gift-giving, and so forth. Gift-giving applies to every kind of relationship in this society. Whether one is of the bride’s family or the groom’s family, an urbanite or villager, a politician or electorate, everyone lives in this network of gift-giving. Similarly, Taiwanese and Chinese politicians also reflect a cultural inclination to relatedness by maintaining seemingly personal ties with their Oceanic counterparts. Crocombe takes the local point of view of political favouritism into consideration instead of simply labeling it as corruption.

China’s growing presence in the Oceanic states can also be felt through the increasing number of Chinese migrants in the region. In their respective chapters, To and co-authors Brady and Henderson employ an over-generalized definition of Overseas Chinese (OC) to include both established islanders of Chinese ancestry and recent Chinese arrivals since the 1990s. Passport sales, suspicious legal documents and illegal activities, even organized crime engaged by some recent migrants, all create a biased portrayal of island citizens of Chinese ancestry. To, in particular, calls attention to the heterogeneous nature of these populations, yet he assures the reader that “the OC have in general maintained their cultural identity,” a conclusion which he draws from David Wu’s work conducted before the independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975. Ultimately, such a definition feels outdated, as its generality falsely imposes a commonality between those citizens of Chinese ancestry, who have integrated into local societies, and recent migrants who have maintained a transnational network. As a minority group, laoqiao, are usually sensitive to being regarded as one voting bloc. Taiwan and China provide external resources that enrich the quality of laoqiao’s island life.

With the “diplomatic truce” declared by Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-Jeou, Taiwan has continued to cultivate its relationships with Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. These Oceanic countries maintain formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan and strive to develop friendly connections with other nations. The current Kuomintang government continues to nurture the discourse started by the previous Democratic Progressive Party-led government, one that stresses an Austronesian heritage shared by Taiwan and most Oceanic peoples. This summer, for example, Taiwan’s Council of Indigenous Affairs will sponsor cultural exchange trips to Fiji for Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese university students.

Finally, it is surprising that Looking North, Looking South uses the term South Pacific so freely. Epeli Ha’uofa, a renowned scholar and writer at the University of South Pacific, had advocated using the word Oceania instead. Oceania, he argues, conveys a local island view of the region based on an inclusive sea rather than a continent, and is thus a better term than the Pacific Island region or the South Pacific, an archaic term from World War II. Brady says in the preface that close attention to Asia’s and China’s emergence in Oceania is long overdue. Though falling short on occasion, Looking North, Looking South’s provides a diverse and in-depth look into this fast changing part of the world.

國立台灣大學文學院 台灣太平洋研究中心
地址:10617臺北市羅斯福路四段1號 國立臺灣大學文學院
電子信箱:tcps.ntu@gmail.com